Card Game

Under the deck is both maps as the activity means. Card games are games played with a set (play) cards (as opposed to the board games). The card games are first divided into play the famous playing cards (hearts, diamonds, clubs and spades) and use the remaining games, which have their own sets of cards. The first group is further subdivided into playing with a deck of 32, 52 or 54 cards. In the second group are all quartets, and Step on Tarot, card games that are derived from board games like The Settlers of Catan and collect cards like Magic, Yu-Gi-Oh and Pokemon, which at the end of the 20th century were a fad and as a game can be played.
Paul Cézanne, the card players, from 1890-92.



It is not known when the game originated. It is generally assumed that the game originated in China some time after the invention of paper. The games from that period are lost. The oldest known Chinese game dates from the 17th century, while in China as early as the seventh century was played with paper cards. So stated that the Emperor Mu-Tsung with his wife "domino cards" played. The values of Chinese dominoes match the values of two dice (the non-zero). Another difference with the western domino games is that the position of stones in Chinese games no object, so the stones are used as maps. The Chinese cards seem to have evolved in different directions: thus, the symbols man, fish, crow, pheasant, antelope, star, rabbit and horse.

Chinese "money cards" have an even greater resemblance to Western playing cards. There were four types, in values of 1-9 and 2-9.

Many on the origin of the game is unclear. So the question whether there is a transfer from China to Europe and if so, how the Chinese card game would have evolved and moved to Europe.

Middle East

Fragments of a Mamluk game dating from the 12th or 13th century. The Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul has a unique Mamluk complete game five tenths of the century, by which individual maps could be identified earlier. The Mamluks in 1400 has 52 round game of cards with symbols swords, polo sticks, cups and coins. The values are 1-10, next to which three persons (king, viceroy viceroy and second) occur. The Spanish name cards, naipes, and an old Italian name, naibi, are probably of Arab origin.

Possibly there is a relationship with the Indian-Persian Ganjifah card game, in the 15th and 16th century in Persia and India played a role.

The oldest traces of the game in Europe date from the period 1370-1400, with an earlier mention of cards in Italy in 1299. A Catalan document from 1371 refers to it as "naipes" which still is the Spanish word for playing cards. A monk in Basel in 1377 describes a game. The city of Florence in 1376 and the German city of Regensburg in 1378 set a ban on card games in. The oldest entry in the Low Countries dates from 1379.
Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin, it cards, c. 1734

The first European cards were hand made. These cards were expensive and exclusive. With the invention of the printing press made it possible and cheaper to produce in larger quantities, whatever happened more and more. It was a great variety of cards, numbers and symbols.

In general, four different groups are more distinct symbols, which are supposed to symbolize the four classes.

The current in Western Europe and the United States used set of cards is based on the French game like that was established around 1480. In the standard game, the French knights replace previously used by women and uses the four stylized symbols used nowadays §¨ ©ª. The game is still full of medieval symbolism.

Talk of French maps, it meant the usual cards with spades, hearts, etc., or the French variant thereof, with the names of the persons represented, and the letters R, D, V. The English (K, Q, J) and Dutch (H, V, B images of buildings on the aces) cards are variants of the French charts.

In France since the sixteenth century use the names of the persons represented on the cards. Initially there was some variation, but since the end of the seventeenth century are the same names. They are derived in part from the 'Nine Worthies. Contrary to what one would expect are not historical couples: Rachel was not the wife of Caesar and Hector was no servant of them. Indeed, women are not historical queens.Also from the picture on English maps is anything to distract (Spades Lord carries a harp, so that David should be). A brief (not entirely uncontroversial) interpretation of names and symbols:

knave queen king
Étienne la hire, companion
of Jeanne d'Arc
or Charles VII
French Empire
Hector Rachel
Julius Caesar
Roman Empire
a knight of Charlemagne
Pallas Athene
King David
Kingdom of Israel
Knight of the Round Table
Anagram van Regina
Alexander the Great
Greek Empire

In the nineteenth century, the convenience of the cards increased by the double-headers on the images to perform before they can stand on its head. Further, the entries added to the corners and the corners rounded. Published in London in 1850 with the first maps printed back. The joker is an American invention from 1865.

the cards as gambling

Card games have always been fit to gamble. The height or low point of the gambling was in the 18th century reached Europe. Louis XIV encouraged his courtiers to make large sums to play. Map evenings, with the opportunity to ruin, came into fashion. That attracted professional players and cheaters aan.Een known player Giacomo Casanova. In his memoirs mentions basset, picket, biribi, whist, quinze especially the mindless but popular faro. In his memoirs, Casanova mentions playing cards "ruini
The card also mania raged at the royal courts and among the highest clergy. It was not unusual for cardinals and bishops as "bank" and acted big bets accepted. Voltaire's friend, Mme. du Châtelet lost in Fontainebleau at the table of the French queen on one evening 80 000 pounds and Voltaire told her after she "had not had that they have played villains". Until 1789 the French court was widely gambled. Marie Antoinette was the last French queen who gamble on cards with a capacity forfeited. In England ruined the nobility to the card table. For tickets addicted to Lord Sandwich was a special sandwich that he thought, with the cards in the other hand, could eat. Some were lucky; Lord Carlyle won years-in-year out so much money he could build Castle Howard but one Scottish gentleman put on one days and lost in the Hebrides.
The last period in which many professional gamblers had made money on the great ocean liners in the early 20th century. Floating palaces as France and the Lusitania were wealthy professional people shaken. Striking among the cheaters was "Count" Victor Lustig.


The tarot-(or-Tarocchi) cards in Italy are first mentioned around 1440. The oldest known tarot game is 15th-century "Visconti-Sforza" game. The "tarocchi di Mantegna" dates from 1470. This led the game with 78 Venetian tarot cards, the symbols with swords, cups, sticks and star (with 14 values per species, 22 + loose cards).
Several theories in circulation are therefore probably incorrect. One is the theory that the card games are introduced by Gypsies in Europe. (Until mid 15th century Gypsies arrived in large numbers in Europe). Another misconception is that the ordinary deck of tarot cards evolved (approx 60 years time difference, and Mamluk games seem more ordinary than tarot cards card games).
Tarot cards are also used as game except to try to predict into the future. This application, along with the gokaspect, in the past led to religious prohibitions. Thus the Reformed circle game still described as the devil picture book.


The card game (plural: card games) is generally of the following four "colors":

Each color is composed of the cards 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 and the 'pictures' or 'honors' Jack, Queen, King and Ace (A). Some card games are also one or more jokers added.

In general, the tickets for the game first shaken ..

There are other variants, for example in France the tarot game (not to be confused with the forecast maps). This game contains a chevalier of Honor plus an additional 21 individual trump cards. Also in the Alps have their own version of "colors" as Eichel and Laub.

Alternative materials

Against the flow of standardization in each year a large number of alternative sets of card games published. Most common are the advertising cards which usually only the back is printed with advertising, but sometimes the front of a card number is adjusted. As a rule, advertising cards playable, because they have little or nothing different from the usual design and thus easy to identify. This is different from artist-designed cards. Representatives of virtually every relevant school of modern art cards are designed, often stunning beauty. Although the results are impressive and characteristic, it is difficult for them to be played. Many of these card and its hard to recognize. The card games are also printed in small editions and are intended as collectors items.

A special category of alternative materials is the wide variety of available pornographic cards. Here too the question of whether the cards are really designed to play with.

The same applies to a more recent American invention. During Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 the U.S. military used playing cards to the names and photographs of the 55 most wanted Iraqi officials in the armed forces to spread. Thus, Tariq Aziz, Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister, 8 spades.


The nature and purpose of the game can vary greatly. The goal of a game may be attainment of success (bridge, guys), or get points (heart hunt, play cards, point jackets) or the collection of as much or wegspelen cards (solitaire, wild card).

Some games can with some justice be termed as a Mind games like bridge, his other pastimes such as pure patience. Others are gambling games like poker sometimes big money on table, or a simple board game like jokers. How to play the same game can vary from region to region

That playing cards and related art are evident from the Mamluk cards pictured. The cards themselves are the artwork. It is remarkable how often avoid playing cards paintings. Through the ages artists have been inspired by the game to the images. See three different examples of Paul Cézanne, Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin and displayed alongside the cheat ruitenaas of George de la Tour.
George de la Tour, with the sharpest ruitenaas, c. 1630